Laboratory for Molecular Photonics


Department of Chemistry

University of Miami

Goal: The goal of this project was the identification of strategies to assemble films of electroactive building blocks on transparent metallic electrodes in a single and efficient experimental step.


Results: The Laboratory of Molecular Photonics developed electrochromic multilayers of bipyridinium dications able to self-assemble on metallic electrodes as a result of the spontaneous formation of metal–thiolate and disulfide bonds.


Keywords: Bipyridinium Dications Electrochromism Electron Transport Monolayers Multilayers Self-Assembly Viologens


Selected Articles

  "Self-Assembling Bipyridinium Multilayers": R. J. Alvarado, J. Mukherjee, E. J. Pacsial, D. Alexander, F. M. Raymo, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109, 6164–6173

  "Self-Assembling and Electrochromic Films of Bipyridinium Building Blocks": S. Sortino, S. Conoci, I. Yildiz, M. Tomasulo, F. M. Raymo, J. Mater. Chem., 2006, 16, 3171–3173

  "Electroactive Films of Multicomponent Building Blocks": I. Yildiz, J. Mukherjee, M. Tomasulo, F. M. Raymo, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2007, 17, 814–820

  "Self-Assembling Films of Chiral Bipyridinium Bisthiols": M. Lamberto, I. Yildiz, S. Sortino, F. M. Raymo, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 981–989


Selected Reviews

  "Electroactive Films Incorporating 4,4'-Bipyridinium Building Blocks": F. M. Raymo, R. J. Alvarado, E. J. Pacsial, J. Supramol. Chem., 2002, 2, 63–77

  "Electron Transport in Bipyridinium Films": F. M. Raymo, R. J. Alvarado, Chem. Rec., 2004, 4, 204–218


The electrochemical reduction and back oxidation of bipyridinium dications, embedded within multilayer assemblies adsorbed on transparent metallic electrodes, modulates the absorbance of the overall material.