‌Keith Waddington


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169 Cox Science Center
1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33124
E-mail: keith@bio.miami.edu
Office: (305) 284-6301
Fax: (305) 284-3039


  • Visiting Scientist, University of California, Davis, 1993-1994
  • Visiting Scholar, University of Notre Dame, Summer 1993
  • Visiting Scholar, Institute for Advanced Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1990
  • Visiting Faculty, Itasca Field Station, University of Minnesota, Field course in Animal Behavior, Summer 1982
  • Professor, University of Miami, 1988-present
  • Associate Professor, University of Miami, 1981-1988
  • Assistant Professor, University of Miami, 1977-1981
  • Researcher, University of California, Berkeley, 1978-1979.
  • Research biologist at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL), Colorado, (Summers 1977, 1978)
  • Post-doctoral, University of California, Berkeley. 1978-9. Bernd Heinrich – Sponsor
  • PhD University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas; Entomology, Animal Behavior, Ecology; 1977 (Honors). Charles D. Michener - Dissertation Advisor.
  • MS The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Entomology, Animal Behavior; 1971 (Honors). Walter C. Rothenbuhler - Thesis Advisor.
  • BS University of Akron, Akron, Ohio; Biology; 1969.


  • Behavior and Behavioral Ecology
  • Conservation and Restoration Biology


I have two main lines of work underway: One line of research centers on foraging behavior, decision-making and communication in bees. This focus has led me to develop and test theories of foraging behavior and to investigate the evolution of communication systems. I have developed novel techniques for quantifying nectarivore foraging behavior. In one effort, I am investigating how the costs and intakes of foraging are perceived by honey bees and how they use this information to choose among flowers. I use artificial flowers in the laboratory so that bees' energy and time budgets can be manipulated. The bees' perception of costs and intakes is quantified by using an aspect of their communication dance that changes with foraging profits. I use this information to understand and predict flower choice. One goal of this work is to better understand the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their pollinators.

I am also studying plant-pollinator interactions in Everglades National Park. We are sampling flower-visiting insects on several permanent sites in each of three Everglades habitats. We are also sampling honey bees using swarm containers and stem-nesting bees using wooden stem nests.


  • Artz, D. and K.D. Waddington. 2006. The effects of neighboring tree islands on pollinator density and diversity, and on pollination of a wet prairie species, Asclepias lanceolata (Apocynaceae). Journal of Ecology. 94:597-608.
  • Pascarella, J.B., K.D. Waddington, and P.R. Neal. 2001. Non-apoid flower-visiting fauna of Everglades National Park, Florida. Biodiversity and Conservation. 10: 551-566.
  • Pankiw, T., K.D. Waddington, and R.E. Page. 2001. Modulation of sucrose response thresholds in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): Influence of genotype, feeding and foraging experience. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A. 187:293-301.
  • Waddington, K.D 2001. Subjective evaluation and choice-behavior by nectar and pollen collecting bees. In:Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behavior and Floral Evolution. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pascarella, J.B., K.D. Waddington, and P.R. Neal. 2000. The bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Everglades National Park, Florida and Adjacent areas: Distribution, phenology, and biogeography. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 72(1):32-45.
  • Waddington, K.D., C.M. Nelson, and R.E. Page. 1998. Effects of pollen quality on the dance of foraging honey bees. Animal Behaviour 56:35-39.